Morocco

 

Education and Training: Stakeholder Mapping and Processes

Index  
   
Section 1   Introduction
Section 2 Main stakeholders in the area of vocational training in RE/EE
Section 3 Processes to implement and alter national vocational training offers in the case of RE/EE professions 
Section 4 Overall findings from the questionnaire
Section 5 Existing RE/EE training offers (details)
Section 6 Questionnaires filled out by training providers and stakeholders
PDF https://goo.gl/GbiiR4

 

Section 1: Introduction

 

The Moroccan education sector follows the competency-based training approach (approche par compétence, APC) whichwas introduced by the Canadian technical cooperation around 2008. The APC intends to focus on more practical, active andsustainable learning and consists in definingthe skills that each student needs in order move on to the nextqualification level.

The curriculum for vocational training in Morocco consists largely of the same levels as in Tunisia based on the French system:

  • Specialized workers (for six months, after primary education)

  • Qualified workers (for 1 year, after 9 years of school = Diplôme National de Brevet, DNB)

  • Professional Aptitude Certificate CAP (“Certificat d’Aptitude Professionnelle”)

  • Vocational Training Certificate BTP (“Brevet de Technicien Professionnel”)

  • Vocational Training Certificate BTS (“Brevet de Technicien Supérieur”)

To achieve an approved technician title (brevet, i.e. BTP o BTS) within the vocational education system, a high school diploma (baccalaureate) after 12 years of school is required (formation professionnelle initiale bac+2). This title allows students to enter into potentially better-paid jobs that may not necessarily require really technical, manual work. However, in many cases those jobs may not be available leaving many graduates unemployed.

By contrast, companies and industry often express their need for skilled workers who have left school after primary education or after 10 years and who are more oriented towards practical work. Without a baccalaureate, however, the young cannot enter the vocational education system, but only choose a qualifying education (formation qualifiante). This kind of education system is not regulated though and the diploma that can be achieved are not officially recognized. As the Moroccan society attaches high value to state-approved diploma, students who receive only qualifying education diploma are likely to have difficulties finding a job. In addition to that, they are usually trained in under-equipped workshops, so that they may not acquire the qualified and diversified skills that employers ask for. Therefore, technicians have to be trained on-the-job by the companies themselves.

 

Section 2: Main stakeholders in the area of vocational training in RE/EE

 

In the following the main stakeholders and training providers in the field of RE/EE are briefly described. More detailed information on trainings provided is given in section 5.5 below.

 

      1. Public Institutions

The Ministry of National Education and Vocational Training (MEFP) develops and implements the government policy in the field of preschool, primary and secondary education, technical training and preparatory classes to outstanding schools. Furthermore it provides the state control on private school education. The Ministry’s central administration exercises supervision over the regional education and training academies, in accordance with the law 07-00 creating these academies.

Département de la Formation Professionnelle (DFP): Being part of the MEFP, the Department of Vocational Training was established in accordance with decree 2-04-332 of 1 February 2005 with the objective to develop the Moroccan government policy on vocational training. Amongst others, its duties include the identification of vocational training needs, the development and revision of training programs together with the concerned stakeholders and the quality control of services in the vocational training sector. [more information to be expected]

OFPPT (Office de la Formation Professionnelle et de la Promotion du Travail) runs 329 training centers in Morocco which have also started to introduce aspects of RE/EE in regular courses. However, especially practical training is not the main focus, also due to a lack of equipment, and an alternation of theoretical learning and company in-house training courses is usually not foreseen. Graduates of OFPPT courses may therefore not always have acquired the practical skills required by the companies.

ADEREE (Agence Nationale pour le Développement des ER et de l’EE) is a public institution subsidized by the Moroccan government. Regulated by the law 16-09, ADEREE's main mission is to contribute to the implementation of the national policy for the development of renewable energies and energy efficiency. It has established its own excellence center in Marrakesh, the GREEN PLATFORM, which is well equipped for practical training (partially funded by GIZ). In addition to that, ADEREE has developed its own diagnose software BINAYATE for the energy performance of buildings and the control of compliance with thermal regulations, which is applied during the trainings.

ONEE (Office National de l'Electricité et de l'Eau Potable) is the national water and electricity company. In the Science and Electricity Technology Center (CSTE) of the electricity branch ONE, which has been created in 1963 in Casablanca, ONEE offers further vocational trainings, especially for its own personnel and for FENELEC (National Federation of Electricity, Electronics and Renewable Energies). Trainings in EE, public lighting and energy audits are currently only conducted internally. Further RE/EE training offerings are under development, especially focusing on solar and wind technologies.

 

      1. Public-Private Partnerships

MASEN (Moroccan Agency for Solar Energy) is a joint stock company with a board of trustees and a supervisory board, which includes the advisor of the king, representatives of several ministries and funds, ONE and SIE (Moroccan Energy Investment Society). It was created in March 2010 by law 57-09 with the main purpose to carry out the Moroccan Solar Plan. For this purpose MASEN aims at implementing a program for the development of electricity production projects from solar energy with a minimum total capacity of 2000 MW. It further contributes to the creation of specialized training courses for solar energy in partnership with engineering schools, universities and vocational training centers and organizes summer schools in solar energy.

IFMEREE (Instituts de Formation aux Métiers des ER et de l'EE) is a joint project including the five key stakeholders of the Moroccan energy sector, i.e. ONEE, MASEN, ADEREE, FENELEC (National Federation of Electricity, Electronics and Renewable Energies) and FIMME (Federation of the Metal, Mechanic and Electro-mechanical Industries). It plans to set up three training centers (Oujda, Tanger and Ouarzazate) which will focus specifically on practical, hands-on training.

 

      1. Associations and Networks

REUNET (Renewable Energy University Network) is a nonprofit association of Moroccan academic and research institutions founded in the year 2012 and officially registered under Moroccan law in 2013. REUNET aims to promote the use of renewable energies in Morocco through training, research and innovation with a focus on solar energy, wind and hydro power, biomass and bioenergy, energy efficiency, energy storage, grid integration and power quality. It organizes also workshops, congresses and summer schools in the field of RE/EE.

The Solar Cluster (Cluster Solaire), an association of Moroccan actors in the solar industry, has been established in 2014 in order to accompany the Moroccan Solar Plan NOOR, launched in 2009. It is chaired by MASEN and the members involved are companies, industry associations as well as research and training institutions. The cluster aims at contributing to capacity building and the development of industrial skills in the areas of solar and green technology by organizing for example workshops, trainings and summer schools for its members.

The EMC (Energy Efficiency of Construction Materials) Cluster, was established in December 2013 as a non-profit organization and is supported by the Ministry of Industry (MICIEN). The cluster members are companies, universities, research laboratories and other actors aiming to establish a synergy and create collaborative energy efficiency projects. Besides other activities, the EMC Cluster provides trainings in energy efficiency in the industrial sector to its members.

 

      1. Private Training Institutions

Bureau VeritasMaroc: In 1902 the French group Bureau Veritas has opened an office in Morocco, the Bureau Veritas Maroc. Since its establishment it is a leader in Morocco in certification and conformity assessment. Furthermore, Bureau Veritas Maroc offers regular as well as customized trainings in the area of energy efficiency.

TUV Certification Maroc represents on the national level the German TÜV Rheinland Group, which is an internationally renowned certification organization and provider of audit services. Working closely together with TUV Maghreb based in Tunisia and the headquarters in Germany, TUV Certification Maroc plans to take over and integrate several training programs in the area of renewable energies and energy efficiency, besides the trainings in energy audit that it already provides in Morocco.

SMAEE (Société Marocaine d’Audit Efficacité Energétique) is a Moroccan energy services company (ESCO). In the field of energy and environment SMAEE offers services in audit, consulting, research, technical and financial assistance and provides trainings in energy efficiency in construction.

IFORM 3E (Institut de Formation aux Métiers de l'Eau, de l'Energie et de l'Environnement), created in 2009, is the first private training institute in Morocco, that is specialized in the fields of water, energy, environment and sustainable development. It is authorized by the MEFP and member of the European Federation of Schools (FEDE).

AFNOR Maroc is the Moroccan office of the French AFNOR (Association Française de Normalisation) Group, which was founded in 1926 as one of the first providers of services related to international standards and industry projects. AFNOR Maroc offers services in the field of standardization and certification and provides inter- and intra-enterprise trainings in energy efficiency.

 

Section 3: Processes to implement and alter national vocational training offers in the case of RE/EE proffessions

The process of introducing a new vocational training offer in Morocco is illustrated by the example of the implementation of IFMEREE. The roles are shown in the figure below:

 

Figure 2: Illustration of the roles in the vocational RE/EE-training development in Morocco by the example of IFMEREE, based on RENAC (2015).

 

The Ministry of National Education and Vocational Training (MEFP) has the role as overall Training Regulator and supervises the Occupational Standards Body as well as the Training Development and Training Approval Bodies (see in the graph).

The Codes of Practice and Job Task Analyses as well as all following steps (occupational standards, training program, teaching, organization and evaluation guides) were developed mainly by the GIZ project DKTI (Component Vocational Training) in line with the competency-based approach (APC) and with the aid of a Moroccan methodologist. Important was also the inclusion of the industry in order to ensure that the competences acquired by the students are aligned with the ones demanded by the sector. The RE/EE sector has been represented by:

  • MEMEE (Ministry of Energy, Mines, Water and Environment)
  • ONEE
  • MASEN
  • ADEREE
  • FIMME
  • FENELEC.

The whole development process was led by GIZ together with experts from Morocco, Germany and other countries (see in the graph). Hence, a clear distinction between organizations that take the role of an Occupational Standards Body and others acting as Training Development Body cannot be made; rather the tasks were carried out in close collaboration among all parties involved.

The IFMEREE curricula have been developed in several phases and steps which all had to be validated by the key stakeholders of the Moroccan energy sector within the DFP leading finally to the state-approved “programme de formation” (certified education and training program). After one year, the curricula will be reviewed and – if required by the DFP and other stakeholders – potentially adjusted. The DFP can thus be considered the Training Approval Body (see in the graph).

Any other institute or company that intends to offer certified training programs would be required to go through a similar process in order to get the approval by the Ministry.

The organization of the OFPPT training centers is working rather independently from the DFP. The validation is organized by OFPPT itself, on the basis of DFP approved curricula. Students of the OFPPT receive a state-approved diploma in the end, even though this one is not issued by the DFP but by OFPPT itself. Considering the activities of the OFPPT in the training program development process, this gives the following overall picture:

 

 

Figure 3: Illustration of the current roles in the vocational RE/EE-training development in Morocco, based on RENAC (2015).

 

Section 4: Overall findings from the questionnaire

 

In October/November 2015 the above mentioned main stakeholders received a questionnaire where they were asked to provide information about their training related activities. To date (11 December 2015) six answers have been received. The detailed answers are provided in the next chapter, annex XX (questionnaire responses overview) and on this website.

The following overall findings can be stated:

  • There are some 400 students per year trained in the field of RE/EE by the six training providers that answered the questionnaire.
  • About 35 training are offered each year by those institutions.
  • The focus of those trainings is on energy efficiency (mainly in construction), but further renewable energy trainings are planned to be offered in the future.
  • 4 of the 6 institutions already provide own train-the-trainer courses, another plans to develop it.
  • Most of the trainers have received their certificates at engineering schools, several have been trained by RENAC. Trainers that have been trained by ADEREE also provide trainings for other institutions (e.g. SMAEE). Moroccan training providers that are part of a company that works on an international level (like TÜV and Bureau Veritas) also collaborate with trainers from abroad (e.g. Tunisia, Germany and France).
  • Except for the IFMEREE, most of the trainings are targeted at professional beginners of advanced professionals, i.e. engineers, technicians, project managers etc.
  • Whereas TUV Certification Maroc and Bureau Veritas Maroc rather provide trainings at external venues (enterprises or hotels), the other four institutions dispose of own training premises, including practical training rooms, three of them well equipped with RE/EE related demonstration material and special RE/EE software.
  • In order to identify training needs and to keep the training program up-to-date, all of the training providers that participated so far in the survey are in regular contact with the industry (or work even in the respective fields themselves).
  • Half of them work on the basis of international standards (ISO).
  • Comparing public and private institutions, it can be seen that public training providers, that receive subsidies, dispose of own training premises that seem to be very well equipped (ADEREE, IFMEREE, ONEE) whereas private training providers tend to conduct (parts of) the trainings at external venues. One exception here is SMAEE, which carries out all trainings in its own well-equipped training rooms and with the help of different specialized software.
  • In addition to that, the private training providers have a strong focus on energy efficiency and energy audits, i.e. they are rather specialized in a single field, whereas trainings dealing with renewable energies are more likely to be found in public institutions which offer a broader set of trainings.

 

Section 5: Existing RE/EE training offers (details)

 

The following information is based on the input received from the various organisations through the questionnaire, supported and complemented by internet research.

 

      1. Certified trainings

 OFPPT offers qualifying technical and vocational education and training (TVET) for different levels:

  • Specialized workers (for six months, after primary education)
  • Qualified workers (for 1 year, after 9 years of school = Diplôme National de Brevet, DNB)
  • Technician (for 2 years, after baccalaureate / CAP) – these types of training are also offered by private institutions (usually bac+1)
  • Specialized technician (for 2 years, after baccalaureate or Bachelor / Technician degree) – also those are offered by private institutions

 IFMEREE plans to set up three training centres:

  • The first IFMEREE site is located in Oujda and has started its operation in November 2015. IFMEREE Oujda is the largest and most diversified TVET institute for renewable energies on the African continent to date.
  • The construction of IFMEREE Tangier has started in September 2015 and is planned to open its doors by early 2017. It will also be one of the biggest institutes in Africa.
  • It still has to be seen when there is sufficient demand from students to begin with the construction of the third IFMEREE in Ouarzazate.

 IFMEREE will be active in five areas covering over 23 - 27 modules: solar PV, solar thermal, wind, biogas and energy efficiency (construction and industry). Apart from RE/EE specific topics and skills, the curricula cover general subjects like mathematics, French, etc. The certified training programs developed so far are:

  • Technician in Energy Efficiency : Construction
  • Technician in Solar Thermal Systems
  • Specialized Technician in Wind Energy Systems
  • Specialized Technician in PV Systems

Students must have a baccalaureate to be eligible, professional experience in not required. They follow a preparatory course of six weeks prior to starting the program. After two years and some 2,200 - 2,500 hours of training, they receive a state-approved diploma. The focus of the program is not on theoretical but on practical training: About two thirds of the time are dedicated to manual and practical activities carried out in on-site workshops. The special feature about the IFMEREE concept is that the modules can also be offered independently as continuing vocational training.

Training classes will be started every year, each one with around 25 students per topic area. As it might not be expected that all of them will finish the program, around 100 graduates per year are to be expected. In the first year, IFMEREE Oujda will start with 62 students and 9 permanent trainers who have undergone an intensive training by RENAC (Renewables Academy) organized and financed by GIZ. In addition to that IFMEREE works with eleven external part-time trainers with certificates from engineering schools and universities. IFMEREE is currently also developing own train-the-trainer (TTT) courses.

IFORM 3E provides trainings in the areas of water, energy, environment and sustainable development as well as supportive business fields (management, human resources and IT). In partnership with FEDE, it offers trainings in 4 levels of certification:

  • European Master (bac+5)
  • Bachelor (Licence professionnelle DESS, bac+3)
  • Bachelor preparation (Prépa-DESS, bac+2)
  • Superior Technician (BTS, bac+2

 The diplomas are issued together by IFORM 3E and FEDE and thus permit students to enter not only Moroccan but also European companies easier.

 

      1. Other training offers

ADEREE offers installer trainings for getting the certification as well as accreditation tests for installers as part of the national program “Shemsi” for the development of solar water heaters (SWH). For solar thermal a similar system as in Tunisia exists: Only clients who use a certified installer can get a credit which they pay back through their energy bills. However, in Morocco this approach seems not as successful as in Tunisia. Likewise the quality of SWH sold on the Moroccan market is tested and certified in the laboratories at ADEREE’s GREEN PLATFORM in Marrakesh. A list with the certified SWH brands and providers in Morocco can be found on the website of ADEREE.

 ADEREE offers the following four trainings mostly at its own training premises, the GREEN PLATFORM in Marrakesh:

  • Energy Efficiency in Construction
  • Solar Water Pumps
  • Individual and Collective Solar Thermal Power
  • Decentralized Electrification Systems (new)

which are in general addressed at engineers, technicians, architects, project managers, decision makers, and private operators. The trainings are offered several times per year and usually take 2 to 5 days. In the end, participants must pass a knowledge test and receive a training certificate by ADEREE. However, the five-day courses focus rather on general information about RE and EE and awareness raising, less on in-depth technical training. Further, ADEREE provides TTT courses in the field of energy efficiency in construction, not only for their own trainers, but also for other training providers.

The GREEN PLATFORM provides two theoretical and two practical training rooms which have the capacity for 20 participants per session. About 20% of the trainings are held at external venues. The RE/EE trainings of ADEREE include the work with special hard- and software, for example specific RE training modules, isolated houses and its diagnostic software BINAYATE.

In order to satisfy the current training needs, ADEREE conducts needs analyses and training evaluations before and after each training (with the help of evaluation sheets).

ONEE offers currently an internal training on energy efficiency at its Science and Electricity Technology Center (CSTE) in Casablanca, including the topics energy quality and control, energy audit, energy compensation and public lighting. This training is offered three times a year with around 16 participants, who are high schools graduates, technicians or engineers. After having finished the 10-day training the participants receive a certificate of attendance.

ONEE is furthermore working on training programs in the area of solar and wind energy and plans also to develop TTT courses. Current trainers have been trained at Moroccan engineering schools and by RENAC and work on a part-time basis.

With more than 40 classrooms and 11 practical training rooms, the CSTE has the capacity to extend its training offers further in RE/EE. The practical training rooms though are not yet equipped for those kind of trainings. Therefore ONEE envisages to integrate demonstration material, such as solar modules and simulators or a wind power installation.

For its trainings in other areas than RE/EE, ONEE has elaborated in 2006 a Reference Guide for Professions and Skills (Référentiel Métiers et Compétences, RMC), on which basis the trainees are trained for their specific profession. Moreover, ONEE has school and industry partnership that keep the training needs up to date. The quality assurance of ONEE/CSTE is in accordance with ISO 9001:2008, the norm for the quality management system.

SMAEE offers one single continued training entitled “Energy Efficiency in Construction in Morocco” which is aimed at architects, project managers and site supervisors. The course is held twice a year for 10 participants who are trained during two days and receive a training certificate from SMAEE in the end. Likewise two TTT courses for university professors are offered per year. The other ten trainers were trained by ADEREE and GIZ. Most of them are extern and work on a part-time basis.

Trainings are conducted in the six own training rooms in the Technopark in Casablanca, which provide demonstration material for the practical training as well as the possibility to use RE/EE specific software like PVSyst, RELUX and RETscreen.

TUV Certification Maroc offers 4 to 6 trainings per year especially in energy efficiency so far. However, several new training offers are under development with the help of the TÜV Rheinland Group in Germany and TUV Maghreb in Tunisia. The current and planned trainings in Morocco are:

  • Requirements of ISO 50001 (Energy Management System)
  • Internal Auditor ISO 50001
  • Third Party Auditor ISO 50001
  • Energy Efficiency in the Industrial Sector
  • Energy Efficiency in the Construction Sector
  • Renewable Energies (Wind and PV)
  • Energy Efficiency Auditor
  • Energy Efficiency Manager
  • Train-the-Trainer Course in the Field of Energy

The courses vary between 24 and 40 hours of training with a theoretical test in the end and the receipt of a TÜV Certificate. For the “Third Party Auditor ISO 50001” Training participants receive a double Certificate issued by TÜV and IRCA (International Register of Certificated Auditors). Depending on the course a specific experience level can be required, but most of the courses are open to professional beginners. In most of the courses international standards are used, such as ISO 50001 (Energy Management), ISO 19011 (Management Systems) and ISO 17021 (Conformity Assessment: Requirements for bodies providing audit and certification of management systems). The general quality of its trainings is assured by the certification of the TÜV Rheinland Group according to the ISO 17024 (Conformity Assessment: General requirements for bodies operating certification of persons).

Trainings are conducted either in the client’s own premises (intra-enterprise) or in five-star hotels (inter-enterprise). The internet platform Moodle is used during the trainings for communication between TÜV, the trainers and the participants. The four external trainers are engineers and have partially been trained by the Tunisian Agency for Energy Control (ANME) or by TÜV itself.

A review of the training courses is done annually by the department of course design to ensure the adequacy and relevance of existing courses and identify any need for changes within the framework of the training plan development for the following year. As all the trainers are professionals in the respective training fields, a systematic exchange with them keeps the trainings up to date. In addition to that, TUV Certification Maroc participates atlocal events, organized by ANME, EU, UNIDO, UNDP&the Ministry of Industry, and international meetings of all TÜV trainers in order to exchange experience.

Bureau Veritas Maroc provides trainings in energy efficiency, energy audits, the Moroccan law in the field of energy and, as TUV Certification Maroc, energy management systems and IRCA certified auditors, both according to the ISO 50001. It also offers customized trainings according to the individual needs of the client. Each year more than 10 trainings are conducted with more than 100 participants in total. The trainings are oriented mostly towards professional beginners (approx. 70%).

In the future, Bureau Veritas Maroc wants to offer/extend trainings in the fields of RE/EE. Even though it does not offer own TTT courses, its trainers are certified by Bureau Veritas itself, at the moment three permanent and four external ones. Only about 10% of the trainings take place in the own two training rooms, the biggest part is carried out in hotels, with which Bureau Veritas Maroc has established partnerships.

For the regular trainings, an exchange with the Bureau Veritas Group exists in order to keep the course adequate and practice-oriented. For the individual trainings, the contents are coordinated with the customers and tailored to their specific needs.

 

Contact

For any questions or comments, please contact: BEZZAR, Najia GIZ MA (najia.bezzar@giz.de) and Annika Annika Hercegfi (annika.hercegfi@gmail.com)