Education and Training: Stakeholder Mapping and Processes

Section 1   Introduction
Section 2 Main Stakeholders
Section 3 Processes to Implement and Adapt National Vocational Trainings
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Section 1: Introduction

Vocational training in Tunisia is a main component of human resource development in synergy and complementarity with the other sectors of education. It aims to develop the professional skills of workers and to help the economy to improve its productivity and competitiveness. Since 2012, there are reinforced reform efforts in order to better adapt the vocational training system to the changing and growing needs of the economy. In accordance with the French model, the Tunisian vocational training system consists of three levels1:

  • An initial course to obtain the Professional Aptitude Certificate CAP (“Certificat d’Aptitude Professionnelle”) which is open to those who have pursued their studies until the end of the ninth year of primary education (preparatory, technical and general).

  • A second course to obtain the Professional Training Certificate BTP (“Brevet de Technicien Professionnel”) which is open to holders of a CAP and those who have continued their studies until the end of the second year of secondary education.

  • An advanced course to obtain the Higher Training Certificate BTS (“Brevet de Technicien Supérieur”) which is open to holders of A-Levels (Baccalaureate) and, under certain conditions, to holders of a BTP.


In addition, basic trainings for the Proficiency Certificate CC (“Certificat de Compétence”) can be organised for those who do not meet the entry requirements for the initial course of vocational training mentioned above.

Vocational training for solar thermal energy (ST) is mostly integrated into initial training for the construction sector through the following courses:

  • CAP “Sanitation and Thermal Installer” includes a 70-hour module on ST installation;

  • CAP “Caretaker Air Conditioning” includes a 30-hour module on ST installation.


The BTS “Centralised Technical Management of Buildings” includes a 90-hour module on the operation and maintenance of energy-saving equipment. These curricula are offered in a dozen vocational training institutions throughout the country, even though the qualification of the instructors and the quality of the trainings vary. In collaboration with the CSNER (“Chambre Syndicale Nationale des Energies Renouvelables”), ANME has elaborated a charter to uphold quality standards for ST installers called “Qualisol” (based on the French model). The charter, however, remains voluntary and has not been imposed as an obligatory quality standard for training institutions.


For more information in this respect, see OECD 2014 “Supporting entrepreneurship in the vocational training system in Tunisia”, From this link, and Tunisian Ministry of Vocational Training and Employment 2013 “The Reform of the national vocational training system”, from this link.


Section 2:Main Stakeholders


1- Public Institutions

Ministry of Vocational Training and Employment (MFPE)

The national system of vocational training operates under the supervision of the Ministry of Vocational Training and Employment (MFPE, "Ministère de la formation Professionnelle et de l’Emploi") whose main tasks are to:

  • Undertake studies and research to enable the development of policies for training, employment, integration and promotion of self-employment

  • Develop the legal framework for training and employment

  • Follow the evolution of the labour market in collaboration with the various concerned stakeholders

  • Develop programmes for young people with the aim of facilitating their employability

  • Develop programmes for the (re-)integration of job seekers into the labour market and for the development of individual initiatives by unemployed people, encouraging self-employment and the starting of small businesses

For the fulfilment of these aims, four public institutions operate under the authority of the MFPE:

☉ National Centre for Instructor Training and Training Development (CENAFFIF)

CENAFFIF (“Centre National de Formation de Formateurs et d'Ingénierie de Formation”) provides training for instructors and supports the development of Tunisia’s training system. It:

  • Conducts studies to identify skills-related needs of the production sector

  • Designs training curricula and provides for their periodic updating

  • Supports their implementation through state-approved training providers, mainly the vocational training institutions working under the authority of the ATFP

  • Develops, implements and evaluates the training of instructors

  • Ensures the development of teaching and learning materials

  • Defines the methodologies for evaluating training providers

☉Tunisian Agency for Vocational Training (ATFP)

ATFP (“Agence Tunisienne de la Formation Professionnelle”) is the main public operator of vocational training in Tunisia. It:

  • Manages 136 vocational training institutions covering 13 sectors including manufacturing, construction and public works, as well as services and skilled crafts

  • Ensures the initial training of young people and adults according to the socio-economic demands of the country

  • Implements the training programmes developed by CENAFFIF

☉National Centre for Further Training and Professional Promotion (CNFCPP)

CNFCPP (“Centre National de Formation Continue et de Promotion Professionnelle”) supports both companies and individuals in developing their skill sets and in improving their career prospects. It:

  • Assists companies in the development and implementation of their training plans to improve productivity and quality

  • Supports companies whose employees participate in training courses (validated by CENAFFIF) by providing tax incentives

  • Develops partnerships with employers’ associations, professional organisations and industrial federations in the field of further education

  • Implements programmes for further education and professional development

  • Provides retraining schemes for workers who have lost their jobs or are in danger of losing them

☉ National Agency for Employment and Independent Work (ANETI):

ANETI (“Agence Nationale pour l’Emploi et le Travail Indépendant”) supports job seekers in finding employment, including through training and entrepreneurship support. It:

  • Animates the labour market through matching services, at national, regional, local and sector levels, including through its network of employment offices

  • Provides information on employment opportunities and professional requirements and available qualifications for enterprises and job seekers

  • Implements programmes promoting the employment and inclusion of young people

  • Provides support for the promotion of small businesses and self-employment

2- Other Public Institutions Providing Training Measures for RE/EE

Not all training providers operate under the authority of the MFPE. There is in fact untapped potential for reinforced public-private cooperation especially in the field of RE/EE training. Training modules for specific RE/EE technologies could thus be developed, for instance, on a collaborative basis within the national system of vocational training.

  • The “Technopôles” operate independently but align their activities with MIE policies. The nine entities that are subsumed under that umbrella combine the promotion of businesses with specific R&D and training activities. In the field of RE/EE the “Technopôle de Borj Cedria” in Tunis mostly offers trainings on photovoltaic and solar thermal installations as well as EE measures for industrial production. The established continued trainings mostly concern the photovoltaic and solar thermal sector.

  • The Professional Training Centre El Khlédia (CFPK, “Centre de Formation et de Perfectionnement d'El Khlédia”) belongs to the national energy utility STEG (“Société Tunisienne d'Electricité et du Gaz”). The CFPK primarily offers in-house trainings for STEG employees at all levels. As the STEG is responsible for managing the grid and thereby also for the reception of RE installations, knowledge on RE is of increasing importance to it (also considering that STEG actually own all the country’s existing wind parks). The CFPK also offers trainings to other Tunisian and foreign institutions and businesses. However, RE-specific modules have not been developed yet.

  • The Tunisian National Centre for Environmental Technologies (CITET, “Centre International des Technologies de l'Environnement de Tunis”) is operating under the authority of the Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development. Created in 1996 to develop qualifications for a better mastery of environmental technologies in Tunisia, it also has the necessary infrastructure to organise and implement trainings.

  • The National Office of Tunisian Tourism (ONTT, “Office National de Tourisme Tunisien”), run by the Ministry of Tourism, manages eight vocational training institutions operating in the tourism and hotel sectors. It therefore also has the potential to promote the use of RE/EE in its field of responsibility.

  • The Agency for the Promotion of Agricultural Training (AVFA, “Agence de la Vulgarisation et de la Formation Agricoles”), run by the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, manages 39 vocational institutions operating in the fisheries and agriculture sectors. It therefore also has the potential to promote the use of RE/EE in its field of responsibility.

  • The Higher Institutes of Technological Studies (ISET, “Instituts Supérieurs des Études Technologiques”) are each attached to an engineering faculty and operate under the authority of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. There are 25 ISET in total. The institutions offer further trainings related to business needs and also act as technological research centres and business incubators.

  • Several universities across the country (Tunis, Monastir, Gabes, Sfax etc.) also offer academic degrees in the field of RE/EE. It remains to be seen to what extent these can provide further training and retraining services for companies and individuals in the future, considering that Tunisian higher education is generally rather theoretical and not sufficiently adapted to the needs and realities of the labour market.

3- Private Institutions Providing Training Measures for RE/EE

Initial vocational training run by the private sector includes about 930 training institutions across the country. A private training provider may offer diplomas compliant with the vocational training curricula developed by CENAFFIF and can obtain accreditation through the MFPE. Further training offered by the private sector includes approximately 2,700 institutions providing training courses for companies in various economic sectors. The CNFCPP also has administrative control over the courses it supports financially.

However, their activities in the RE/EE field remain very limited for the time being. Only a few private institutes so far provide further education in the field of RE/EE, the TÜV Maghreb being one of them. It works closely with the TÜV Rheinland Akademie and offers training courses accredited by the MFPE in different fields, including for energy management, energy efficiency and the training of instructors.

Planned Skills Training Centre for Solar Water Heating

The GIZ Project DMS (“Developing the Decentralised Solar Market in Tunisia”) supports the creation of a PPP-funded training centre for solar water heating (SWH) in Béja. These trainings will be owned and run by Biome Solar Industry (BSI), a Tunisian manufacturer of SWH systems of which a 13% stake is held by KBB, a German supplier of flat plate collectors.

The trainings target installation companies active in the residential or industrial sectors, as well as project consultants and technical auditors. After the initial programme design which is planned to be completed in 2016, BSI will market the courses nation-wide. The envisaged trainings comprise courses for installation technicians, maintenance and service personnel as well as technical controllers and supervisors in the field of SWH. Other RE/EE curricula may be implemented in the future. The training centre and the training courses have yet to be approved by CENFAIFF. Installation companies that enrol their employees in the trainings can benefit from financial incentives from the CNFCPP.

Section 3: Processes to Implement and Adapt National Vocational Trainings

Following the categorisation of the RENAC study (for full title, see footnote), the roles of the different stakeholders and the related processes in the Tunisian training system can be depicted as follows:

Figure : Vocational training processes and stakeholders in Tunisia

The MFPE initiates CENAFFIF studies on skills and training needs in the public and private sectors, develops training curricula and the corresponding training materials. CENAFFIF carries out these studies in collaboration with the concerned ministries, in the case of RE/EE, with the (new) Ministry of Energy (ME). This can also involve companies or industry associations such as the Tunisian employers’ confederation UTICA (“Union Tunisienne de l’Industrie, du Commerce et de l’Artisanat”) and its sectorial federations, namely the CSNER (“Chambre Syndicale Nationale des Energies Renouvelables”) as well as the newly-created CSPV (“Chambre Syndicale du Photovoltaïque”).

As the CENAFFIF is also responsible for curricula development, it has the role of Training Development & Approval Body which collaborates with other institutions that have the technical expertise or legal mandate to define the set of qualifications needed.

In the case of energy, this is the National Organisation for Energy Conservation (ANME, “Agence National pour la Maîtrise de l’Energie”), a public organisation working under the supervision of the Ministry of Energy (ME). It has the task to propose and implement public policies which promote RE/EE technologies in various sectors. Being the principal state institution for RE/EE, its field of operation also includes supportive actions concerning education and training as well as defining the requirements and standards for RE/EE-related professions, services and installations. Therefore, ANME assumes the role of Occupational Standards Body in cooperation with the institutions working under the authority of the MFPE.

The ANME defines the necessary technical skills of companies active in the field of photovoltaic and solar thermal energy. The required skills for a solar installer so far include a degree from an academic or vocational institution and further specific training (which may be obtained in a five-day on-demand training organised by the Technopôle Borj Cedria).

The Ministry of Equipment, Housing and Spatial Planning (MEHAT, “Ministère de l’Equipement, de l’Habitat et de l’Aménagement du Territoire”) grants licenses to businesses operating in the field of building, electrical and civil engineering. Licensing of solar installers will be implemented by the MEHAT, based on a standard agreed on by the ANME. It also grants licenses to equipment (PV panels, solar water heaters).

The developed curriculum may then be implemented in collaboration with the Training Provider ATFP at its vocational training institutions. Responsible for the public approval of a private training institution is the MFPE. However, the MFPE and its implementing institutions only partially fulfil the role of a Training Regulator, since once a training provider has been granted permission to offer trainings or once a curriculum has been implemented by a training provider, no further standardised controls exist to ensure the quality of the training and of the exams.

Planned Additional Trainings for PV Installers

GIZ is currently implementing a new project funded by the German Foreign Ministry to support “Human Capacity and Resource Development for the Development of the Solar Market in Tunisia” in order to ensure the necessary qualifications for PV installers. A central objective of the project is to improve the cooperation between the private and the TVET sector in order to build up practice-oriented competences for PV installers. The project is going to develop a further training course, which is to be implemented through a core group of instructors and a network of training institutions. The trainings offered may later on be integrated into the initial vocational training system. A complementary project, financed by the German Foreign Ministry and implemented by SEQUA, aims to build up “Vocational Training Partnerships in Solar Technology” and to develop the respective capacities of three selected ATFP training providers.

Both projects are overseen by a special steering committee which includes all the relevant stakeholders: ANME, ATFP, CENAFFIF, CFPK/STEG, TBC, MEHAT, MFPE, DGET and CNSPV. The plans of the steering committee for 2016 are: 1) to offer a virtual platform for information and knowledge sharing for professional training to all stakeholders; 2) complete the training material; 3) complete the necessary documents in order to implement a PV curriculum; 4) train 10-20 master-instructors that can offer train-the-trainers programmes nationwide.

In 2017, the steering committee is planning to achieve: 1) the creation of a network of public and private training institutions that offer further training in PV; 2) having at least two training providers that offer further education in PV including ‘on-the-job’ trainings; 3) the implementation of a programme that targets qualified, but unemployed, graduates.